How IoT Works – A Easy Explanation!

Trying to figure out how the Internet of Things (IoT) works and feeling a little overwhelmed by all the terminology experts use to describe it?

How does the Internet of Things (IoT) work?

In a nutshell, the Internet of Things (IoT) operates like this: Information is gathered by devices (such as humans) as they move about. These devices exchange data through protocols (similar to a language) and store and preserve the information they have in common (like memory). In the end, this data is processed and sent to the user in a meaningful form.

Automated actions are taken based on the information provided (like fight-or-flight response). However, there are situations when a user’s input must be more direct (like reasoning).

How IoT sensors and devices function

To begin, gadgets and sensors gather data about their surroundings as part of the Internet of Things.

Smart devices/sensors are configured to take in stimuli from their surroundings in the same manner that you and I do (sound, temperature, vibration, humidity, etc.).

The Internet of Things relies on data input/collection as its basis. A lot of it, as well.

There is a vast variety of data that we humans acquire, but most smart devices/sensors concentrate in only a handful.

Contact sensors, for example, are used to determine whether or not something is open or closed.

Some of these sensors are also able to gather information on the temperature and vibration intensity of the surrounding environment.

In general, the fewer smart devices you need to execute a challenging activity, the more capabilities each one has.

2) The connectivity between IoT devices

It is necessary for smart devices to be able to communicate with one other after they have gathered data.

Communication is what we call it in the real world. Connectivity is the term we use to describe the Internet of Things.

Protocols, on the other hand, are used by smart devices and sensors to communicate.

Examples of IoT Protocols

Bluetooth and WiFi are two of the most used IoT protocols, but there are many more. There are other less well-known, but nonetheless common, protocols like ZigBee and Z-Wave.

As an example, have a look at the following:

There is a French speaker and an English speaker in the same house.

At 85 degrees, an English-speaking individual is ranting at a French-speaking person in the living room about how hot it is.

While the French speaker is currently in the kitchen, fussing at the English speaker about how loud the radio is, the French speaker is in the other room.

As the two are seeking to exchange information about their environment, they are speaking different languages.

Smart gadgets don’t all speak the same language, which is one of the biggest problems with the Internet of Things today. Because of this, many smart goods don’t operate together.

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To utilize data effectively, you must first be able to comprehend it.

However, there is a workaround.

Translators = SmartHubs

There are many smart devices that communicate with one other using various protocols, and a smart hub (also known as a gateway or bridge) may operate as a translator for these devices.

Data from all these smart devices is centralized and translated into a common language by smart hubs.

To what end does the smart hub put all this data now that it’s available for analysis?

Cloud-based storage is used for it.

3) How IoT cloud computing is implemented

The clouds are very beautiful.

Another word that causes everyone to feel a little nervous.

To put it simply, cloud computing enables us to access our data and services from anywhere in the world through the internet (think Google Docs).

And with that, I bid you farewell for now. The cloud is to blame.

Local access is what you get when you can only get to your data or use a service from inside your machine (think Microsoft Word).

There are several advantages and disadvantages to either (cloud versus local access), but in summary, the cloud provides a great deal of freedom in that you may access your data/service from anywhere with an internet connection.

As an example, I can view a Google Doc on my friend’s laptop and continue where I left off without having to bring my own laptop with me.

As an alternative, I could only continue working on my Word document saved on my computer’s desktop if I had a laptop with me.

With the cloud, you’re out of luck if you don’t have access to the internet.

There are also clear security flaws that need to be taken care of. Because the cloud is accessible through the internet, it is more vulnerable than a local service.

But I’m getting ahead of myself.

Cloud services (software) begin processing the data after it has been acquired, transmitted through a smart hub and transferred to the cloud. This is similar to how human brains analyze information.

4) How the Internet of Things (IoT) works

When it comes to the Internet of Things, here is where the magic occurs.

In order to show and perhaps act on the data, it must first be prepared for presentation and translation before it can be transferred to the cloud.

There are two ways in which this occurs:

  • Automatically
  • Direct human involvement is necessary


Autonomous actions are those that take place without the need for human involvement.

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As with the fight or flight reaction, this involves a rapid processing of information by the body before a response is effected. There is little to no need for you to be involved in the process.

The expected consequence isn’t always the case with people. The Internet of Things, on the other hand, has a much more tightly controlled consequence.

Here’s an IoT-enabled automation example:

  1. The quantity of dust in the air is measured by smart air quality sensors in your bedroom.
  2. The smart air quality sensor interacts with your smart vacuum cleaner when the amount of dust reaches a predefined threshold.
  3. An adequate quantity of dust is being removed from the air by the vacuum cleaner.

Data and dust levels are continually monitored and maintained in this case without your involvement.

Direct User Interaction is Mandatory.

Taking action isn’t always a matter of reflex.

Information is often processed before being provided to the user in this manner.

The user then choose what to do with the information. We employ reasoning in our daily lives in a similar way. We use the information we’ve digested to create judgments.

An example of an IoT-based direct user input:

  1. Your basement’s temperature is measured by a clever temperature sensor.
  2. Text messages are delivered when the basement temperature dips below 55 degrees.
  3. Then you decide to raise the temperature in your basement.

Temperature sensors were used to alert the user that a specified level had been exceeded.

Turning up the heat was then done in response to what the user had learned.

On a scale we’ve never seen before, the Internet of Things (IoT) has allowed real-time information in both situations. The ability to keep tabs on our homes and personal life from afar is a wonderful thing.

5) Industry 4.0 and IoT

To yet, I’ve centered my IoT discussion on the person and user. You may assume that the Internet of Things has far-reaching effects on business.

When IoT first started to take root on the production floor, it was surprising.

Equipment and machine data are gathered and analyzed by manufacturers using devices and sensors. Increasing efficiency, productivity, and safety are the main objectives.

If a machine stops operating, for example, sensors can pinpoint the particular problem and make an order for servicing or replacement components. In the long run, this reduces downtime and increases productivity.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is currently being used by companies that use these sensors to better the analysis of all their data, bringing this example one step further.

Predicting when a machine is going to cease operating is now possible, and they can even prevent it from happening in the first place.

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In this section, we’ll examine how IoT and AI/ML operate together.

Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence (AI) cannot be ignored while discussing the Internet of Things (IoT) (ML).

But first, it’s important to recognize the differences. The two terms are commonly used interchangeably, however they’re not exactly same.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the idea that robots are capable of doing activities in a manner that humans would consider “intelligent”.

As for Machine Learning, it is founded on the idea that we must be able to “feed” computers data and let them learn on their own.

What does AI have to do with the Internet of Things?

For the time being, the number of “smart” items and houses available is still rather small. Our involvement and guidance is critical to their proper operation and success.

Suppose, though, if our houses were able to learn about our habits and behave accordingly. Who knows what and when we’ll desire anything in the future?

What artificial intelligence can do is what we’re hoping for.

In the last example of dust level automation, the user (that is, you) had to first set up the automation.

After then, it would operate “automatically” for the rest of its life.

Internet of Things (IoT) Automation

We may expect a very different outcome if the Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence (AIoT) were operating together.

Dust allergies may be detected using a smart wearable gadget.

After that, your air quality sensor will be informed.

Using this sensor, you may monitor dust levels depending on your own personal sensitivity levels.

Your smart vacuum will start cleaning your house when dust levels grow too high, reducing the amount of dust in the air.

The automation will come into being of its own own.


That’s all there is to it. IoT operates in this manner.

Our buzzwords are very important to those of us in the IT business.

ML, AI, IoT, and cloud computing are just some of the newest technologies.

Unfortunately, the meaning of these concepts is sometimes obscured by ambiguous terminology and a lack of explanation for the general public.

It’s our hope that this explanation has clarified things for you and piqued your interest in what the Internet of Things has in store for us in the future.

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